The Russian nuclear industry to switch to the development of new civilian power reactors

The license of Rostekhnadzor for the creation of the BREST-OD-300 power unit was issued to the Siberian Chemical Combine of Rosatom (Siberian Chemical Combine, Seversk, Tomsk Region)

Aleksandr Uvarov, editor-in-chief of the information portal on nuclear energy AtomInfo.ru, told RIA Novosti that “Construction of a new reactor is starting in Russia and thus a new,“ land ”direction of reactors with heavy metal coolant is being opened, which is still nowhere in civil nuclear power. has not been mastered in the world ”   He recalled that Russia is the only country with successful experience in operating heavy-metal cooled reactors used on a number of Soviet nuclear submarines.

The power unit with an installed electric capacity of 300 MW with the BREST-OD-300 reactor should become the key object of the experimental demonstration energy complex (ODEC), which is being built at the SGChK site within the framework of the strategic industrial project “Breakthrough”   In addition to the power unit, the ODEC includes a complex for the production of mixed uranium-plutonium nitride nuclear fuel for the BREST-OD-300 reactor, as well as a complex for the reprocessing of spent fuel.

The complex will make it possible to create a closed on-site nuclear fuel cycle, which will make it possible not only to generate electricity, but also to prepare new fuel from the fuel discharged from the reactor core. Earlier it was reported that the launch of the BREST-OD-300 reactor is scheduled for 2026. The BREST-OD-300 reactor is intended for practical confirmation of the main technical solutions laid down in lead-cooled reactor plants in a closed nuclear fuel cycle, and the main provisions of the inherent safety concept on which these decisions are based.

The features of the reactor make it possible to abandon large volumes of containment, a melt trap, a large volume of support systems, and also to reduce the safety class of non-reactor equipment.   Lead coolant has a number of advantages. First, it slows down neutrons a little, which is fundamentally important for the operation of “fast” reactors. In addition, lead has a high boiling point (about 1.8 thousand degrees Celsius), it is chemically inert in contact with water and air, and does not require high pressure in the coolant circuit.  

The combination of the properties of a heavy lead coolant and dense heat-conducting nitride fuel creates conditions for achieving full reproduction of nuclear “fuel” and excludes the most severe accidents – with an uncontrolled increase in power (as in Chernobyl) and loss of heat removal from the reactor core (as in Fukushima). This is the essence of the natural safety of the BREST-OD-300 reactor.   The integral design of the reactor plant makes it possible to localize coolant leaks in the reactor vessel volume and to exclude the dehydration of the core.

This excludes accidents requiring the evacuation of the population, and this actually means that the radiation safety of the environment is guaranteed not by technical means and methods, but by the very absence of activity above the already existing natural levels.

Vietnam’s vast wind power potential

A giant wind-farm off the south coast is one of more than 150 wind power projects planned in Vietnam; the 1GW Vinh Phong project will be funded by a Russian-Belgian JV, but Hanoi needs to improve its clunky electricity grid so renewable projects can be fully incorporated in coming years

(AF) A plethora of international players are beating a path to Vietnam to take part in its renewables ramp-up – the largest in Southeast Asia – which includes both solar and onshore wind and now even an offshore wind project development.

The most recent to show interest includes Russian state-owned oil and gas producer Zarubezhneft and Belgian marine contractor DEME Offshore.

The two signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to build the proposed Vinh Phong project. It is a 1-gigawatt (GW) offshore wind farm proposal with a cost of $3.2 billion. Vinh Phong is located in southern Vietnam, northeast of Ho Chi Minh City, the country’s business hub.

The two partners look to commission the first phase of the project, with 600-megawatts (MW) worth of capacity, by 2026, prior to a second phase with a further 400MW capacity by 2030. If plans hold tight, it could be Vietnam’s first offshore wind farm and it is anticipated that more will follow.

Zarubezhneft said it will share investment costs with a specially formed investment vehicle called DEME Concessions Wind. Under the MoU, the two firms will get oil and gas producing venture Vietsovpetro and DEME Offshore to manage the construction process.

Vietsovpetro, a joint venture between Zarubezhneft and state-run PetroVietnam, already operates several offshore oil and gas blocks in Vietnam.

Zarubezhneft

Zarubezhneft set a goal of entering both the wind and solar sector in Vietnam, Cuba, Southern Europe and Russia. These plans, not surprisingly, suffered setbacks due to the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic last year and a subsequent pullback in global oil prices amid the worst slump in demand for oil ever, which caused a drop to multi-year lows. However, global oil prices have recovered, with the global oil benchmark, London-traded Brent crude, now hovering above $70 per barrel, with price appreciation and forecasts that demand will increase for the rest of the year.

Vietnam’s clean energy transition

Zarubezhneft’s disclosure comes as Vietnam undergoes systemic changes in its energy sector. This stems from a forecast natural gas supply shortage that will impact its power generation capacity with potential brown and black-outs, mostly earmarked for the more populated south. However, Covid-19 related economic contraction has pushed that forecast back at least a year or two.

Vietnam’s energy quandary also stems from steady economic growth and more energy consumption, as well as geopolitical interference. Over the past several years, China has prevented PetroVietnam and its foreign partners from developing natural gas resources in Vietnam’s own UN-mandated 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in the South China Sea, a problem not dissimilar to that faced by the Philippines.

To offset this supply shortage, Hanoi initially focused on developing more liquefied natural gas (LNG) infrastructure. Currently, two LNG import terminals are being constructed in the southern part of the country. With at least six more approved, and possibly more considering projects pending approval at various provincial levels. Vietnam also has as many as 22 LNG-to-Power projects in its soon to be released Power Development Plan 8 (PDP8), to 2030 with guidance to 2045.

Over 150 wind projects proposed

Vietnam has marked advantages in its renewables ambitions over many of its neighbors in the region. It is including a vast coastline of some 3,260 km (2,030 miles), excluding islands. It is ideal for both offshore and near-shore wind-power development. By way of comparison, only around 3% of neighbouring Thailand’s land mass has suitable wind speeds needed to drive turbines, which greatly hinders the country’s capacity to develop wind power.

Vietnam’s solar radiation in most parts of the country is also ideal for solar project development. And it has contributed to its quick build-out, which seems to have peaked last year.

Much of the country’s recent success with solar can also be attributed to Hanoi approving generous feed-in-tariffs (FIT). These tariffs encourage investment in renewable energy by guaranteeing an above-market price for producers. Since they usually involve long-term contracts, FITs help mitigate the risks inherent in renewable energy production.

Tax exemptions to reduce investment risks

The government has also approved FITs for its wind-power development, with those tariffs up for review at the end of October. It also offers various tax exemptions to reduce investment risks.

Yet, Vietnam’s wind power development pales in comparison to its solar build-out. By the end of 2020, wind power accounted for just 1% (670MW) of the country’s energy mix. It is compared to 16.6GW for solar, including rooftop solar, according to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA). Under PDP8, the next power development plan, the country aims to ramp-up solar capacity to 18.6GW and wind capacity to 18GW by 2030. Vinh Phong, for its part, is one of as many as 157 wind farm projects proposed in Vietnam.

Three weeks ago, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) signed a $116-million loan with three Vietnamese firms to finance the construction and operation of three 48MW wind farms, totaling 144MW, in the central province of Quang Tri.

The projects will increase Vietnam’s wind-power capacity by as much as 30%, helping it to also offset the country’s still troubling reliance on coal needed for power generation. Coal still makes nearly 40% of the country’s energy mix, and that figure looks likely to remain steady until to at least the middle of the next decade.

The ADB’s move three weeks ago was its first wind-power project in Vietnam and comes just a month after the bank said it would stop funding most fossil fuel projects in the region, even natural gas, under most scenarios.

Electricity grid needs urgent improvements

However, as promising as Vietnam’s renewables build-out is, several problems remain, including power grid curtailment. Simply put, the country needs new transmission and distribution infrastructure to accommodate additional capacity and transmit the new power to where it’s needed.

The problem is already being felt by a number of power projects that have had to curtail production since transmission lines are already operating at capacity. Especially in areas where there is a concentration of solar power. This has resulted in less electricity being produced, less revenue earned and an inability of some project backers to service debts incurred to build projects.

Similar problems – depending on each location’s specific grid development – could see otherwise bankable wind power projects, (onshore, near-shore and offshore) unable to obtain necessary funding to go forward.

But the Vietnamese government is now starting to address this problem. It recently  adopted a new law that improves and prioritizes grid development. And grid development is now a priority in the draft PDP8, the first time it’s been included in the country’s PDP.

However, expanding grid capacity is both capital and time intensive. Build-out times can range to as much as five years or more. Other countries are also confronting similar situations when building renewable power projects, including heavyweights such as Germany and the UK.

There are some short-term solutions for grid congestion, however, such as utility scale battery storage, grid enhancing techniques, plus topology optimization software. All of these improve grid resilience and reliability, and prevent bottlenecks, but the long-term solution is still expanding Vietnam’s transmission grid.

Bosch has created a CVT that extends the range of EVs

Bosch has announced the development of a special transmission option specifically for electric vehicles, on which multistage gearboxes are practically not used. The company assures that their modernized CVT will increase the range of battery vehicles by reducing energy consumption

  • The main advantage of the variator at Bosch is the ability to smoothly adjust the gear ratio due to the design features. At low speeds, such a box improves traction performance, which optimizes acceleration dynamics or helps with towing and off-road driving, and at high speeds, it improves energy efficiency and increases top speed. In addition, the variator reduces power consumption when driving at a constant speed.
  • The CVT thus eases the performance requirements of the powertrain, which means that electric vehicles can be supplied with less powerful and cheaper motors. In addition, the use of a continuously variable transmission will allow the use of more compact batteries.
  • A component developed by the company called CVT4E, according to the calculations of engineers, increases the efficiency of the electric vehicle’s power plant by 4%. Now the variator is being tested on test Volkswagen e-Golf at the facilities of the Dutch division of the concern, but the prospects for its commercial application have not yet been reported.

In modern electric cars, in the overwhelming majority of cases, single-stage gearboxes are used. Only the Porsche Taycan and Audi e-tron GT platforms have a two-stage solution.

How Rosatom built a huge 150 MW wind farm

How much more is planned in the near future?

In the second half of 2020, Rosatom built a wind farm, unique in its scale. It is in Adygea, which became the largest in Russia and one of the largest in Europe.

Russia is considered to be a fan of traditional hydrocarbon energy. This is true given the huge reserves of natural gas, oil and coal in the depths of the country and on the continental shelf, mainly in the richest Arctic zone.

However, in recent years, Russia has been investing heavily in the creation of large facilities in the field of alternative renewable energy. 

One of these facilities is the Adyghe wind farm. 

The construction of wind energy facilities in Adygea was carried out on a land plot with an area of ​​14 hectares. In total, Rosatom has installed 60 facilities. Each wind turbine is 150 m high and rated at 2.5 megawatts. 

In total, all 60 wind turbines generate energy with a capacity of 150 MW.

The length of one blade is 50 m, and each object weighs over eight and a half tons.

The blades for the Adyghe wind farm were ordered several years ago in India, but since 2020, such blades have been produced in Russia at the Ulyanovsk plant, which has already shipped the first batch of domestic blades for wind power facilities in Denmark.

The new wind farm in Adygea can generate about 350,000,000 kWh annually.

The commissioning of only one of this wind power plant allowed to increase the volume of electricity generation in the entire Republic of Adygea by 20%

It is important that Rosatom does not stop at the development of alternative energy facilities. 

So recently, a large wind farm with a total capacity of 86 MW was built in the Ulyanovsk region, and very soon a huge wind farm will be built in the Stavropol Territory.

In terms of its size and production capacity, it will surpass the new Adyghe wind farm and will generate annually up to 210 MWh.

An equally large alternative energy facility, which is being built in the Republic of Kalmykia, is on its way. 

And the largest wind farm until 2023 is planned to be built in the Astrakhan and Rostov regions. They will generate 350 MW each year.

The cost of building each of these huge wind farms is estimated at 30,000,000,000 rubles.

For comparison, the largest wind farm in Europe, built in the UK in 2013, generates about 630 MW.

Generally # plans Rosatom for the construction of wind farms is very ambitious. In the next two years alone, Rosstat plans to build and commission wind power plants with a total capacity of over 1 GW.

Why Rosatom’s new laid-down reactor is the safest in the world, and when will it enter series

Russian giant Rosatom is rightfully considered the world leader in nuclear energy and a number of other high-tech areas, as evidenced by an extensive portfolio of foreign orders

Rosatom was the first to master the serial production of the latest modern third generation fast breeder reactors. 

Now our concern has begun construction of the world’s first power unit of the next generation – the fourth.

A new power unit is being built in the city of Seversk in the Tomsk region. 

The installation was named Brest OD 300.

The new reactor operates on fast neutrons and has a lead coolant.

Rosatom considers this # type of reactor to be completely safe. Accidents like Chernobyl and the Fukushima disaster using the Brest reactor are excluded.

The new reactor was based on the principle of natural safety. 

Foreign competitors of Rosatom do not possess such technology and continue to build thermal neutron reactors in which water serves as a coolant.

The advantage of fast reactors is the ability to reuse spent nuclear fuel as new fuel, thereby achieving a closed cycle. 

In addition to being economical, fast reactors are safer than existing thermal reactors. The possibility of unpredictable and uncontrollable acceleration of neutrons is excluded, which is equivalent to the loss of the coolant. 

The risk of a parazirconium reaction that provoked the disaster at the Fukushima nuclear power plant is also excluded. 

The work on the design of the fourth generation reactor has been carried out by Rosatom since 2010. Rosatom plans to commission the Brest power unit by the end of 2025.

One of the important advantages of the new reactor will be its ability to run on fuel # uranium 238, which is much cheaper and more widespread on our planet, in contrast to the rare uranium 235.

In the next few years, Rosatom plans to organize the serial production of the newest Brest reactors in Russia, and after 2030 start exporting them to foreign partners. 

“KamAZ of Doomsday, the conqueror of the poles…

You all know such tractors and trucks as KamAZ. They can be found on the streets of absolutely any city, on the highway, or even in villages. But what do we usually see? These are trucks, well, dump trucks. But what if I tell you that KamAZ has an incredible truck capable of driving anywhere in general, of unrealistic dimensions and many functions, as well as with incredible design solutions? Today I will tell you about the coolest, largest and most expensive KamAZ – KamAZ-e “Arctic”!

In fact, no matter what work of art “Arctic” may seem. During the premiere, it did not make a splash. “How so ?!” – you ask. The answer is further in the article!


Creature

For the first time, the idea to make such a “miracle” came from a designer from Naberezhnye Chelny in 2017 and they embodied it in the form of KamAZ 6345 (in the photo on the left). However, it had to be improved and almost completely changed, and in the course of this, “Arctic” appeared. And when it was presented at the “COMTRANS19” exhibition, everyone thought it was just an improved 6345! However, if the old “Arctic” had a 6×6 base, the old cockpit. Then when everyone realized what KamAZ had done, then all the youth clambered over this car and just the same a sensation took place!

KamAZ 6345 (Left) and KamAZ 6455 (right, the same new Arctic) Photo taken from the site gruzovikpress.ru

Appearance

Agree that the appearance of this truck is something absolutely unusual and indescribable. This is a real doomsday machine. High ground clearance, unusual design, a bunch of ladders and equipment and the most unusual thing – wheels! It is also very unusual to watch him turn, but more on that later.

At the driver

This is how the workplace of the driver of this “miracle” looks like. But in order to drive such a truck, you need to be a real extreme, or a complete professional in your field.

Despite the abundance of functions and the unusualness of this truck, the driver will not be confused in the cab: everything is intuitive and simple, especially for those who have already driven KamAZ-ah. As you may have noticed, there is an automatic transmission here, because poking around with a “handle” on such a car would not be the best thing to do. Naturally, even a sleeping bag is provided here!

For what

I think that by the very name of this tractor, you have already understood what it was created for. The word “arctic” speaks for itself! But it was made not only for the conquest of the poles. It is provided for and created for hard-to-reach terrain, where there is no road from the word “at all”;
for wetlands where conventional trucks cannot pass; and the list of what it was prepared for includes tundra, taiga, permafrost.

Photo taken from the site gruzovikpress.ru

Constructive decisions

Naturally, the most important and unusual solution, one might even say a design temptation, is the articulated frame, which is movable in the horizontal plane and provides a minimum turning radius. The maximum folding angle, by the way, is 45 degrees!

Photo taken from the site gruzovikpress.ru

Technical specifications

Below, instead of a ton of text, I will give photographs of the size of the “Arctic” 8×8 and a small list of its technical characteristics:

Photo taken from the site gruzovikpress.ru

Photo taken from the site gruzovikpress.ru

Here is such an article! By the way, the price of this miracle starts at 15 million rubles! What do you think about this truck? Personally, I don’t even know how to summarize

Singapore’s foray into space

Boldly going where no little red dot has gone before – Singapore space industry


By Derrick A Paulo, Lee Li Ying and Sharifah Fadhilah Alshahab

The efforts of the country’s budding space industry are giving the Republic a larger stake in the space race than many people may think. The programme Why It Matters looks at the opportunities and obstacles.

The first made-in-Singapore commercial earth observation satellite was launched in December 2015. A global network of satellites may be on the horizon

Over the past four years, Singapore-based start-up Transcelestial has made a device called Centauri. It is about the size of a shoe box. Its aim: To provide internet connectivity that is around 1,000 times faster, or more, than now.

It just needs to connect to a satellite using laser communications. No, make that a global satellite network the company wants to put into space.

Working from home at the speed of light, however, “isn’t even scratching the surface of the capability” of laser-linked satellites, says Transcelestial co-founder Rohit Jha.

He is looking into connecting “roughly three and a half billion people” — about half the world who have no internet connectivity or have “very basic 2G-level phone services”.

“All you have to do is position a satellite above (them), and drop a laser link. And you can power high-bandwidth internet to everyone,” he tells the programme Why It Matters.

Expecting a roll-out by the end of 2024

Transcelestial is still doing research and development for its global space network, and eyeing a roll-out by the end of 2024.

The start-up is not alone in aiming high. There are more than 30 firms and over 1,000 people in Singapore’s budding space industry.

And the effort they are putting into space technology is giving the nation a larger stake in the space race than many people may think.

Since 2004, investors have put US$135 billion (S$183 billion) into the global space sector. Singapore, though a little red dot, accounts for 7 per cent of the global share.

By 2040, the global space industry could generate revenue of US$1.1 trillion, according to Morgan Stanley estimates. It is a race for big money, even as Singapore’s foray into space could help to solve world problems too.

‘LOW-HANGING FRUIT’

For space superpowers and private companies with deep pockets, going into space also means attempting missions to the Moon and beyond.

But that is not the kind of breakthrough that Singapore Space and Technology Association president Jonathan Hung thinks the Republic needs.

Size is a consideration here — the Kennedy Space Centre, where such missions blast off in the United States, occupies a site that is 80 per cent of Singapore’s land area.

“We’ve got to pick and choose what we want to do. Right now, Singapore’s play is very much within the satellite domain. Now, satellites can do quite a lot. Specifically, we cover telecommunications. We also cover advanced navigation,” says Hung.

These are some of the “low-hanging fruit” he believes should not be underestimated. “There are good jobs. We can create … advanced manufacturing activities. All these things will help regenerate and spur the economy on.”

Jonathan Hung has been wooing government players, research foundations and international partners for the past 14 years to make Singapore a bona fide space hub

There are now more than 2500 satellites orbiting the earth – there will be more

Without satellites providing location tracking, smartphone apps that people take for granted, like ride-hailing services and Google Maps, would stop working. There are now more than 2,500 satellites orbiting the earth, and experts say there will be more.

These go as far as 35,000 kilometres away. It is the orbital altitude of geosynchronous satellites transmitting television and other signals to the ground. There are also satellites orbiting at lower levels.

Transcelestial, for example, plans to put its satellites at around 1,000 km above ground. It is a reason its signals would be faster — taking “less than five milliseconds” instead of a delay of “almost a second”, says Jha.

Another benefit of its satellite technology, especially to a city like Singapore, could be the cheaper and thus faster roll-out of 5G.

“If you’re building fibre networks, a kilometer of fibre is roughly around US$100,000 to US$150,000 … Our device usually comes in at one-tenth of that price,” cites Jha.

EYE IN THE SKY

Satellite products and services are driving more than half of space-related commercial activities worldwide. In Singapore, the first commercial remote sensing satellite built here — called TeLEOS-1 — was launched in 2015 by Singapore Technologies (ST) Electronics.

The satellite gave the Republic an eye in the sky to see what was going in the region, with geospatial analysts studying its pictures to provide insights for organisations willing to pay for them.

There are just two problems with TeLEOS-1. It cannot see through clouds, and is blind at night.

So engineers are putting together something with a more powerful vision. TeLEOS-2, which is now undergoing testing. It will carry radar that can capture images day or night, and no matter what the weather condition.

But it may be a couple of years before the satellite is launched.

A team of 70 engineers took five years to develop TeLEOS-1, considering the space environment a satellite must operate in “compared to our everyday electronics”, as systems engineer Tan Chek Wu puts it.

For example, it alternates between heat and cold “14 to 15 times a day” in orbit, cites Tan, who is with ST Engineering’s satellite systems. It also travels at “more than 7 km per second” — even airplane speeds do not come close.

And to ensure that a satellite can “survive the vibrations of the journey” on a rocket launched into space, his team must “put it on a big shaker” first.

NANOSATELLITES AND 18-METRE ROCKETS

While the TeLEOS-1 is a 400-kg satellite, former defence engineer Ng Zhen Ning thinks the start-up he co-founded in 2017, NuSpace, has a winning edge with satellites weighing less than 10 kg.

These nanosatellites can do almost anything conventional satellites can, like monitoring weather conditions or tracking internet data.

“It’s all thanks to miniaturisation of technology,” says Ng, citing the mobile phone as an example. “That has shrunk to the size of an iPhone. The same thing has happened for nanosatellites.”

There may be a vast expanse of space, but budgets are limited. “Building such satellites is roughly 50 times cheaper,” points out the 30-year-old, who expects the cost to go down further, together with the mass manufacturing of satellites.

“We’re working with contract manufacturers to figure out how we can streamline the entire assembly process. And hopefully by 2024, we should be able to have this assembly line here in Singapore.”

NuSpace’s satellites each weigh up to 4.5 kg

Small satellites have some downsides, however. Big satellites get priority on rockets because they take up most of the space. So if their production schedules are delayed, then everyone else must wait.

Smaller spacecraft for small satellites?

Rocket makers are now coming up with smaller spacecraft so small satellites can have a dedicated ride to space. In Singapore, 29-year-old Simon Gwozdz is looking into this, starting with a research rocket as a prototype for something more powerful.

His dream rocket would be 18 metres high, or six storeys. This would still be six times smaller than some of the largest rockets ever made, as high as 110 metres.

His grander plan, however, is to launch rockets from locations nearer to Singapore.

“Being close to the equator is very, very helpful in launching a rocket. It can go into any kind of orbit. (It) means you can get into any kind of market niche,” says the founder of Equatorial Space Systems.

Compared with the polar regions, an equatorial launch would also save fuel, as the surface at the equator moves faster, giving a rocket an extra push.

“We don’t have much land in Singapore … but there’s a lot of sea. And sea launching has also been done for a number of years,” notes Gwozdz.

“All you have to do is take a barge, retrofit it a little bit, install some extra equipment, and you can use it.”

The ideal location to him would be the Indian Ocean, “because we won’t be overflying anybody’s territory”. He is also looking at the South China Sea, “not very far from the coastline of Johor”.

“We’re currently exploring the possibility of conducting launch operations from that site,” he says, while noting that co-ordination with Malaysia and also Indonesia is “absolutely necessary” in any rocket launch.

Space is becoming a ground for doing business

He thinks it is worth investing in sending a rocket to space, because “in 20 years’ time, a country with no sovereign launch capability will be … like a country that doesn’t have its own airline”.

“Why should we invest in pretty (much) anything, in Changi Airport in the first place?” he adds. “Space is becoming a ground for doing business, on top of the exploration of more lofty ideas of course.”


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