Technologies and machines old and ancient make a strong impression. Modern developments sometimes make one wonder – and why this is not yet in our modern life? Today we will look at a very young device, which is already being called in the media as a revolutionary super-efficient engine.
The developers of this mechanism are Aquarius Engines from Israel. They have developed a two-way linear free-piston motor (FPLE). Yes, this engine has only one piston, but it works for two. And – this is the only moving part in the entire engine! Cool? And here’s another fact – Aquarius Engines consists of only two dozen parts!
At the same time, it has a significantly lower weight, size, volume, and cost than conventional “usual” internal combustion engines. It can operate on any type of fuel – gasoline, diesel, hydrogen. It is effectively converting mechanical energy into electricity. In it, due to friction, only 2% of mechanical energy is lost. In a conventional engine, this is about 15%. Aquarius Engines is the power-to-weight champion.
It is worth saying that the Israeli company presents the engine not in its “pure form”, but as a system consisting of a power plant and a generator powered by it. Such a scheme, when installed on a hybrid (or electric) car, allows it to overcome more than one and a half thousand kilometers.
According to preliminary test estimates from the German concern FEV, the efficiency of the resulting mechanism is two times higher than the conventional internal combustion engines that currently exist.
Could it get into mass production?
Despite the difficulties of implementing such an installation, which breaks today’s standards in the automotive industry, Aquarius Engines specialists hope that within ten years they will be able to introduce their development into mass production of cars. Negotiations with Peugeot give some confidence that this is quite possible.
Another area of application for this ultra-efficient installation could be in the operation of conventional power generators. Negotiations on testing installations, held with the Finnish corporation Nokia, led to a positive result. Nokia wants to try them on remote communication towers.
New Delhi is planning to assist in developing Russia’s Northern Sea Route (NSR). And turning it into an international trade artery, according to Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
“India will help Russia in the development of the Northern Sea Route and opening this route for international trade the same way as Russia helps India to develop with the aim of space exploration and the preparation of the national manned Gaganyaan program,” Modi said, speaking via video link at a plenary session of the Eastern Economic Forum.
The Indian prime minister also said Moscow and New Delhi had managed to make significant progress in developing commercial ties despite massive disruptions caused by the Covid-19 pandemic.
The friendship between India and Russia has stood up against the test of time,” he said.
“Most recently, it was seen in our robust cooperation during the Covid-19 pandemic, including in the area of vaccines. The pandemic has highlighted the importance of the health and pharma sectors in our bilateral cooperation.”
According to the Indian head of state, an energy partnership between the two nations would bring greater stability to the global energy market.
Modi also said that such joint projects as the Chennai-Vladivostok sea corridor, which is currently under development, provide greater connectivity along with the North-South transport corridor.
Major deal on developing Russia’s Big Northern Sea Route sealed at Eastern Economic Forum
A broad agreement aimed at providing stable growth of exports, cabotage and transit traffic along Russia’s Arctic sea route has been signed at the Eastern Economic Forum (EEF) in Vladivostok on Friday.
Russian state nuclear corporation Rosatom and the Ministry for Development of the Far East and the Arctic agreed to closely cooperate on projects aimed at developing the transport artery stretching along Russia’s Arctic coast.
“The Big Northern Sea Route from Murmansk to Vladivostok plays an important role in transport security, and connects by sea the European part of Russia with the Far East,” Rosatom’s director general, Aleksey Likhachev, told the media on the sidelines of the EEF.
“We are interested in promoting cooperation under this project with both Russian and foreign counterparts,” he added.
The Northern Sea Route lies from the Kara Gate Strait in the west to Cape Dezhnev in Chukotka in the east. The Big Northern Sea Route includes the Arkhangelsk, Murmansk regions and St. Petersburg and the Far East from the Northern Sea Route’s border in Chukotka to Vladivostok. The 5,500-kilometer (3,417-mile) lane is the shortest sea passage between Europe and Asia.
It became a world premiere: the first Russian “electric aircraft” – the Yak-40LL flying laboratory with a demonstrator of hybrid power plant (GSU) technologies flew to MAKS-2021. The flying laboratory flew off perfectly
Experts note the clear coherence of the joint work of the aircraft systems and the GSU, which includes the world’s first superconducting electric aircraft engine. It complements the aircraft’s two turbojet engines. The use of high-temperature superconductivity technologies in the future will significantly reduce the weight and dimensions of electrical machines and increase the efficiency. This is critically important for aviation: flying is always a struggle with weight. And here we are ahead of the world by 2-3 years, because no one has yet demonstrated such an approach and such technologies have not been shown.
A 500 kW superconducting electric motor rotating the propeller is located in the bow of the Yak-40LL. There is also a liquid nitrogen cryogenic cooling system. The electric motor is powered by an electric generator rotated by a turboshaft gas turbine engine, it is installed in the tail section, and a battery pack. You take off on an electric motor, wherever possible, you start the gas turbine engine, recharge the battery at the permitted altitude, continue the flight again on electricity and sit down on the propellers.
Prior to the start of flight tests, the unique motor and its components were bench tested at CIAM. Then the GSU was installed on the Yak-40 aircraft, on the basis of which a flying laboratory was created at SibNIA. After confirming the stable joint operation of the electric motor and all aircraft systems during the ground test complex, the Yak-40LL moved to the flight test stage.
According to scientists, they hope to receive the entire set of technologies by 2026-2027, which will make it possible to create a regional aircraft on such a hybrid scheme by 2030. But we intend to go even further, namely, to use not nitrogen as a coolant in the engine, but liquefied hydrogen, which will also be fuel. It actually gives no emissions at all. This will be an even more complex scheme – for large aircraft, for long-range aviation. However, this is already the prospect of 2035 and beyond.
GSU “electrolyte” was developed by the Central Institute of Aviation Motors named after P.I. Baranova (CIAM, part of the Research Center “Institute named after NE Zhukovsky”) in broad cooperation of domestic enterprises. Thus, an innovative electric motor was created by the SuperOx company by order of the Advanced Research Fund. Among the participants in the work – FSUE “SibNIA named after S.A. Chaplygin” (SibNIA, also part of the Research Center “Institute named after N.E. Zhukovsky”), Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow Aviation Institute ( National Research University). The customer of the research work “Electrolet SU-2020” is the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation.
– At MAKS-2019, we presented a model of this flying laboratory and individual elements of the power plant. And at MAKS-2021, it has already taken off into the sky. During these two years, CIAM and our project partners have gained valuable practical experience in the development of hybrid power plants and the use of superconductivity in electric motors. We are already using the gained experience in other projects, including the use of hydrogen as a fuel, – said Mikhail Gordin, General Director of CIAM.
“We create superconducting materials and technologies that are needed to create efficient electric aircraft. During MAKS, we, together with our colleagues, clearly demonstrated a very important step on this path – a flying laboratory with a superconducting electric motor made its first demonstration flight. In the future, superconductors in combination with hydrogen fuel will open up a real way to create efficient and environmentally friendly aviation, ”says Andrey Vavilov, Chairman of the SuperOx Board of Directors.
– In flight tests, the most difficult task was to determine the effect of blowing the propeller of an electric motor on the operation of the propulsion engines in flight and the features in case of its failure, which was verified during flights, as well as to determine the features of the longitudinal stability of the aircraft during rebalancing arising. Everything turned out to be within acceptable limits, – says the general director of SibNIA, honored test pilot of the Russian Federation Vladimir Barsuk.
All developers of aviation technology in the world are engaged in the study of low-noise and environmentally friendly GSUs, primarily for promising production aircraft of small and regional aviation. Their advantage lies in the ability, on the one hand, to benefit from energy efficient, environmentally friendly electrical technologies, and on the other hand, to maintain an acceptable weight efficiency by optimizing the design and operating modes of gas turbine or piston aircraft engines.
– The technologies that we use in our “electric plane” are a breakthrough for the global aircraft industry. So far, we are testing innovative electric motors at the flying laboratory, but by about 2030, the Zhukovsky Institute expects to present a number of aircraft with fundamentally different economic and environmental indicators, including noise and emissions. This technological breakthrough could not have been made without the active interest and funding of the Ministry of Industry and Trade of Russia and the Foundation for Advanced Research, ”sums up Andrei Dutov, Director General of the N.Ye. Zhukovsky Institute.
Bosch has announced the development of a special transmission option specifically for electric vehicles, on which multistage gearboxes are practically not used. The company assures that their modernized CVT will increase the range of battery vehicles by reducing energy consumption
The main advantage of the variator at Bosch is the ability to smoothly adjust the gear ratio due to the design features. At low speeds, such a box improves traction performance, which optimizes acceleration dynamics or helps with towing and off-road driving, and at high speeds, it improves energy efficiency and increases top speed. In addition, the variator reduces power consumption when driving at a constant speed.
The CVT thus eases the performance requirements of the powertrain, which means that electric vehicles can be supplied with less powerful and cheaper motors. In addition, the use of a continuously variable transmission will allow the use of more compact batteries.
A component developed by the company called CVT4E, according to the calculations of engineers, increases the efficiency of the electric vehicle’s power plant by 4%. Now the variator is being tested on test Volkswagen e-Golf at the facilities of the Dutch division of the concern, but the prospects for its commercial application have not yet been reported.
In modern electric cars, in the overwhelming majority of cases, single-stage gearboxes are used. Only the Porsche Taycan and Audi e-tron GT platforms have a two-stage solution.
You all know such tractors and trucks as KamAZ. They can be found on the streets of absolutely any city, on the highway, or even in villages. But what do we usually see? These are trucks, well, dump trucks. But what if I tell you that KamAZ has an incredible truck capable of driving anywhere in general, of unrealistic dimensions and many functions, as well as with incredible design solutions? Today I will tell you about the coolest, largest and most expensive KamAZ – KamAZ-e “Arctic”!
In fact, no matter what work of art “Arctic” may seem. During the premiere, it did not make a splash. “How so ?!” – you ask. The answer is further in the article!
For the first time, the idea to make such a “miracle” came from a designer from Naberezhnye Chelny in 2017 and they embodied it in the form of KamAZ 6345 (in the photo on the left). However, it had to be improved and almost completely changed, and in the course of this, “Arctic” appeared. And when it was presented at the “COMTRANS19” exhibition, everyone thought it was just an improved 6345! However, if the old “Arctic” had a 6×6 base, the old cockpit. Then when everyone realized what KamAZ had done, then all the youth clambered over this car and just the same a sensation took place!
Agree that the appearance of this truck is something absolutely unusual and indescribable. This is a real doomsday machine. High ground clearance, unusual design, a bunch of ladders and equipment and the most unusual thing – wheels! It is also very unusual to watch him turn, but more on that later.
At the driver
This is how the workplace of the driver of this “miracle” looks like. But in order to drive such a truck, you need to be a real extreme, or a complete professional in your field.
Despite the abundance of functions and the unusualness of this truck, the driver will not be confused in the cab: everything is intuitive and simple, especially for those who have already driven KamAZ-ah. As you may have noticed, there is an automatic transmission here, because poking around with a “handle” on such a car would not be the best thing to do. Naturally, even a sleeping bag is provided here!
I think that by the very name of this tractor, you have already understood what it was created for. The word “arctic” speaks for itself! But it was made not only for the conquest of the poles. It is provided for and created for hard-to-reach terrain, where there is no road from the word “at all”; for wetlands where conventional trucks cannot pass; and the list of what it was prepared for includes tundra, taiga, permafrost.
Photo taken from the site gruzovikpress.ru
Naturally, the most important and unusual solution, one might even say a design temptation, is the articulated frame, which is movable in the horizontal plane and provides a minimum turning radius. The maximum folding angle, by the way, is 45 degrees!
Photo taken from the site gruzovikpress.ru
Below, instead of a ton of text, I will give photographs of the size of the “Arctic” 8×8 and a small list of its technical characteristics:
Photo taken from the site gruzovikpress.ru
Photo taken from the site gruzovikpress.ru
Here is such an article! By the way, the price of this miracle starts at 15 million rubles! What do you think about this truck? Personally, I don’t even know how to summarize
South Korean firm envisions the drones being used for parcel delivery, agriculture, freight and transportation
By DAVE MAKICHUK
Hydrogen fuel cell technology (HFCT) is expanding rapidly in many sectors.
For example, Volvo and Daimler have now partnered to speed up the transition away from diesel trucks and towards fuel cell electric vehicles in the European Union. Hydrogen-powered trains are now running in Germany.
BMW Group recently announced plans to unveil a limited series hydrogen fuel cell SUV in 2022. French aerospace giant Airbus is investing heavily in mature fuel cell propulsion systems for the zero-emission aviation market.
Well, get ready for the newest twist — hydrogen-powered drones.
Not only that, but commercial drones, making deliveries and transporting people.
According to a report in FreightWaves.com, a South Korean-based hydrogen company, in concert with Russian researchers, has announced it will work to commercialize a hydrogen fuel cell drone.
Hypower Lab claims that using fuel cells can increase the flying time of a drone more than four times over traditional lithium-ion batteries — a major advantage.
It also envisions the drones being used for parcel delivery, agriculture, freight and even passenger transportation.
The R&D firm is working with the fuel cell research center under the Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics (IPCP) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), the report said.
Yury Dobrovlsky, who leads the IPCP RAS research center, said the combination of Russian hydrogen fuel cell technology and Korean artificial intelligence technology will lead to mass production of the drone at competitive prices.
Developing drones for multiple applications
“We will lead the popularization of drone aircraft in the delivery drone commercialization market that needs around 3 million commercial drones in 2025 by establishing the hydrogen fuel cell mass production system exclusively for drones in South Korea,” he said.
The companies will work to develop drones for multiple applications in both Russia and South Korea, the report said.
The drone, which has a flight time of over three hours, Hypower said, features a 12-liter fuel canister with 4.8 hours of battery life.
Hypower is not the only company working on hydrogen-powered drones.
Doosan Mobility Innovation (DMI) announced it too had successfully tested a hydrogen-powered drone in a humanitarian delivery, the report said.
In February, DMI said it would seek European Union approval for its hydrogen fuel cell powerpack for drones later this year. The pack provides 2.6 kilowatts of power for two hours of flight time.
DMI plans to sell its product in Europe, Korea, the US and China.
A hydrogen transport cylinder
To help solve the problem of transporting hydrogen to drones, Intelligent Energy, a UK-based company, has developed a hydrogen transport cylinder — the IE-Soar — that features a high-pressure valve, the report said.
The valve is a key enabler and will make it simple for customers to get their full cylinders where they need them and ready to use, company officials said.
Currently, the legal transport of hydrogen in Europe and the US is limited.
“We know our fuel cells are the ideal choice for UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) operators requiring longer flight time,” Andy Kelly, head of UAV product development at Intelligent Energy, said.
“However, it is important that we support [these efforts] with the peripherals required to get operational. This valve is a key enabler and will make it simple for our customers to get their full cylinders where they need them and ready to use.”
Hydrogen is combined in the fuel cell with oxygen from the air to produce electricity; as long as hydrogen fuel is provided to the cell, the battery generates power.
This makes them valuable for long-range missions such as gathering aerial data or performing long-range deliveries and inspections, or for applications requiring larger drones and payloads.
Hydrogen batteries also work well in extreme cold weather, can be refueled in minutes and don’t emit greenhouse gasses like long-range, gas-powered drones do.
According to the US Department of Energy, the US has just 44 publicly accessible hydrogen fueling stations and 42 of them are in California. Eighty-four of Europe’s 175-plus stations are in Germany.
The transportation of full, UAV-compatible, hydrogen cylinders is not permitted in Europe or the United States — they must be filled at hydrogen fueling stations, which are sparse.
The scarcity has impacted the time and cost of using hydrogen fuel cells in drone operations.
Intelligent Energy hopes its value can resolve key distribution issues for getting hydrogen to the drones for fueling.
“The next logical step is to get them delivered directly to our customers,” Kelly added. “We want it to be as straightforward as ordering barbecue gas and getting empty cylinders collected.”
HES Energy has also introduced a new, industrial-grade multi-rotor drone that aims to address this significant shortcoming, HiConsumption.com reported.
The new Hycopter is a hydrogen-powered six-propeller drone system that utilizes HES Energy’s innovative 1300W fuel cells to prolong flight duration to nearly three and a half hours — which is almost five times as long as a traditional industrial drone.
The 140g pressure regulated system has three different hydrogen storage options and acts as a platform for high-precision observation systems to remain in use for extended periods of time.
It features a 12V payload power and an open bay that can carry up to six-pounds of additional equipment like a hi-res camera in 20 mph winds.
Sources: FreightWaves.com, InsideUnmanned Systems.com, DoosanMobility.com, Hi Consumption.com
Its construction uses modern composite materials, so it is much lighter and more economical, including new powerful Russian engines
On April 7, at the aircraft plant in Lukhovitsy near Moscow, the second prototype of the Il-114-300 was presented. This new turboprop aircraft is an upgraded version of the Il-114 and is intended for regional transportation. Its construction uses modern composite materials, so it is much lighter and more economical, including new powerful Russian engines.
IL-114-300 is already called an air minibus. It is modern, safe, but also unpretentious in maintenance at any airfield, even if there is a difficult short runway. Hundreds of regional airfields need the Il-114-300, which will replace the obsolete An-24 and An-26 aircraft. The main task is to connect remote settlements with regional centers.
“The main thing for regional aerodromes is that this aircraft has a minimum clearance. Here you can get to everything without special airfield equipment. The plane also has its own built-in ladder, through which all 68 people can climb. The Il-114-300 can carry up to 7 tons at a time, “Zvezda’s correspondent Alexei Koshkin said.
Deputy Prime Minister of Russia Yuri Borisov, together with the leadership of the United Aircraft Corporation, boarded a prototype aircraft and talked to test pilots right in the cockpit, where all the instruments are located on five modern LCD monitors.
“For 30 years we have not made such aircraft. The market is waiting for something, ”Borisov said.
The Deputy Prime Minister also examined the production facilities of the enterprise and the IL-114-300 final assembly shop. There he was also presented with a second prototype aircraft, the assembly of which is proceeding according to the approved deadlines. This model has an updated airframe. It is being assembled using serial technologies, just as all the planes that will go to carry passengers and goods in the regions will be built.
Mass production expected to start in 2023
“We expect that from 2023 the aircraft will enter the series. The production capacity of this workshop is designed for at least 12 aircraft per year. The aircraft has chances in terms of export potential. It can be useful both in India and Iran, ”the Deputy Prime Minister said.
This new turboprop aircraft will withstand temperatures ranging from +45 to -55 degrees. According to the chief designer, the Il-114-300 is also super-safe.
“It has a modern flight and navigation complex for flights in adverse weather conditions, it has modern digital control engines. There is a new air conditioning system on it, ”said Sergei Ganin, chief designer of Il PJSC.
The new aircraft is being created from domestic components. Most of the equipment systems were developed by Rostec enterprises.
“Any employee can come up here, look at a 3D model in order to control or get some initial data for performing work on the plane,” said Alexander Fokin, head of the final assembly shop.
The first prototype Il-114-300 took off for the first time on December 16, 2020 at the airfield in Zhukovsky. The flight task included checking the operating modes of the power plant, the stability and controllability of the aircraft, as well as the functioning of its systems. Flight tests are still ongoing. Two more aircraft will join the test program. During the assembly of this aircraft, the cooperation of various enterprises of the United Aviation Corporation is being worked out.